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Fingerprinting STAR-ECHO



  • $ fingerprint@info:~ echo $STAR-ECHO
  • Name:


    Original feature purpose:

    --- (considered as a bug)


    Web browsers allow to load resources from private IP addresses ( – – – Thus, it is possible to ascertain if specific software is used by the client. Loading local resources also exposes information about the router (vendor/version) the client is connected to or VPN network/provider information, IoT devices in the same network, NAS services, media/stream server and anything else that is accessible via http from the client's system.

    Extracted information (exemplary cases):

    • Your router is available via
    • Your router is: FRITZ!Box
    • Your FRITZ!Box has NAS support
    • Your FRITZ!Box has NAS support on FRITZ!OS 06.30* < FRITZ!OS 07.01
    • Your FRITZ!Box has MESH support (FRITZ!OS > 07.01)
    • You have FRITZ!Box 7360
    • You have FRITZ!Box 7272
    • You have FRITZ!Box 7170
    • You have FRITZ!Box Fon WLAN
    • You are running XAMPP with default configuration
    • You are running a server on localhost
    • You are running a server and VirtualBox Host-Only Network is enabled
    • SABnzbd is running on port 8080
    • SABnzbd is running on port 8082
    • NZBGet is running on port 6789
    • MPC-HC/BE WebServer is running on port 13579
    • Plex is running on port 32400
    • Emby is running on port 8096
    • Subsonic is running on port 4040
    • Openfire (XMPP) is running on port 9090
    • You are connected to a Vodafone-Hotspot
    • You are connected to a SWM-Hotspot
    • You are connected to MWN

    The demo implementation is currently active fingerprinting.
    Passive fingerprinting can be done as well. For example with the CSS pseudo element ":after" as shown here:

    STAR-Echo passive with img:after STAR-Echo passive with img:after

    If resources are tested without a ?timecode URL-appendix to prevent accessing a cached-version, it is possible to extract local connection information made in the past.




    js, hardware-dependent, software-dependent, unchanged-consistent, short-living, cross-browser


    • Block/request permission for local resource requests via browser settings or addon
      Problem: No browser has implemented this feature yet (Jan, 2019)

    • Block local resource requests by system firewall
      Explanation: Local resources will not be loaded within the browser and websites will not be informed which servers are running on your system and in your network.

    • Use proxy to block local requests
      Explanation: Configure, e.g., a SOCKS v5 on your system mapped to

    • Change default server ports
      Explanation: The script must loop through ports to detect if a server is running
      Problem: If the script detects your choosen port, this makes you stand out more


  • $ fingerprint@info:~ run star-echo-demo
  • Demo:

    >> Jump to STAR-ECHO Fingerprinting Demo <<

Info: If your browser blocks Mixed Content reload with >>HTTP<<.

Your STAR-Echo Output:

Example output: